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About My Lab
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Databinge/Friday tech talks archive
Neurofutures2017/Brain Clearing and Expansion





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Selected publications below in 3 areas: Connectivity, Disease Stroke/Psychiatric, and Oxidative stress.


Noorshams, O., Boyd, J.D. & Murphy, T.H. (2017) Automating mouse weighing in group homecages with Raspberry Pi micro-computers. J Neurosci Methods, 285, 1-5.

Vanni, M.P., Chan, A.W., Balbi, M., Silasi, G. & Murphy, T.H. (2017) Mesoscale Mapping of Mouse Cortex Reveals Frequency-Dependent Cycling between Distinct Macroscale Functional Modules. J Neurosci, 37, 7513-7533.

Woodard, C.L., Bolanos, F., Boyd, J.D., Silasi, G., Murphy, T.H. & Raymond, L.A. (2017) An Automated Home-Cage System to Assess Learning and Performance of a Skilled Motor Task in a Mouse Model of Huntington's Disease. eNeuro, 4.

Silasi, G., Boyd, J.D., Bolanos, F., LeDue, J.M., Scott, S.H. & Murphy, T.H. (2018) Individualized tracking of self-directed motor learning in group-housed mice performing a skilled lever positioning task in the home cage. J Neurophysiol, 119, 337-346.

Haupt, D., Vanni, M.P., Bolanos, F., Mitelut, C., LeDue, J.M. & Murphy, T.H. (2017) Mesoscale brain explorer, a flexible python-based image analysis and visualization tool. Neurophotonics, 4, 031210.

Chan, A.W. & Murphy, T.H. (2017) Good Vibrations: Resting-State Functional Connectivity Reflects Entrainment of Vasomotion. Neuron, 96, 716-717.


Xiao D., Vanni MP., Mitelut C., Chan AW., Xie Y., Chen AC., Swindale, NV., and Murphy TH.  (2017) Mapping cortical mesoscopic networks of single spiking cortical or sub-cortical neurons.  eLife  e19976. doi: 10.7554/eLife.19976 Epub ahead of print

Bolanos, F. and LeDue J., Murphy TH. (2017) Cost effective raspberry pi-based radio frequency identification tagging of mice suitable for automated in vivo imaging. J. Neurosci. Meth. 276:79-83

Large Scale Cortical Functional Networks Associated with Slow-Wave and Spindle-Burst-Related Spontaneous Activity. (2016) McVea DA, Murphy TH, Mohajerani MH. Front Neural Circuits. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2016.00103. Review.

Murphy TH, Boyd JD, Bolaños F, Vanni MF, Silasi G, Haupt D, andspan>  LeDue JM “High-throughput automated home-cage mesoscopic functional imaging of mouse cortex” (2016) Nature Communications 7:11611

Silasi G, Xiao D, Vanni MP, Chen AC, Murphy TH (2016) Intact skull chronic windows for mesoscopic wide-field imaging in awake mice. (2016) J Neurosci Methods.  15:141-9.

Xie Y, Chan AW, McGirr A, Xue S, Xiao D, Zeng H, Murphy TH (2016) Resolution of High-Frequency Mesoscale Intracortical Maps Using the Genetically Encoded Glutamate Sensor iGluSnFR. J Neurosci 36:1261-1272.

Zeng S, Murphy TH (2015) Special Section Guest Editorial:Special Section on Light Microscopy of Connectivity. Neurophotonics 2:041401.

Lacroix A, Toussay X, Anenberg E, Lecrux C, Ferreiros N, Karagiannis A, Plaisier F, Chausson P, Jarlier F, Burgess SA, Hillman EM, Tegeder I, Murphy TH, Hamel E, Cauli B (2015) COX-2-Derived Prostaglandin E2 Produced by Pyramidal Neurons Contributes to Neurovascular Coupling in the Rodent Cerebral Cortex. J Neurosci 35:11791-11810.

Funayama K, Minamisawa G, Matsumoto N, Ban H, Chan AW, Matsuki N, Murphy TH, Ikegaya Y (2015) Neocortical Rebound Depolarization Enhances Visual Perception. PLoS Biol 13:e1002231.

Anenberg E, Chan AW, Xie Y, LeDue JM, Murphy TH (2015) Optogenetic stimulation of GABA neurons can decrease local neuronal activity while increasing cortical blood flow. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 35:1579-1586.

Chan AW, Mohajerani MH, LeDue JM, Wang YT, Murphy TH (2015) Mesoscale infraslow spontaneous membrane potential fluctuations recapitulate high-frequency activity cortical motifs. Nat Commun 6:7738.f

Lim DH, LeDue JM, Murphy TH (2015) Network analysis of mesoscale optical recordings to assess regional, functional connectivity. Neurophotonics 2:041405.

Vanni, M. and Murphy T.H. (2014) Mesoscale transcranial spontaneous activity mapping in GCaMP3 transgenic mice reveals extensive reciprocal connections between areas of somatomotor cortex. J. of Neurosci. 34(48):15931-46

Harrison, T.C., and Murphy, T.H. (2014). Motor maps and the cortical control of movement. Curr Opin Neurobiol 24: 88-94.

Mohajerani MH, Chan AW, Mohsenvand M, Ledue J, Liu R, McVea DA, Boyd JD, Wang YT, Reimers M, Murphy TH.  (2013) Spontaneous cortical activity alternates between motifs defined by regional axonal projections.   Nat Neurosci. 2013 16:1426-35.

Cover of Nature Neuroscience 2013, 10  

Lim DH, Ledue J, Mohajerani MH, Vanni MP, Murphy TH.  (2013) Optogenetic approaches for functional mouse brain mapping. Front Neurosci. 7:54. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2013.00054.

Silasi G., Boyd, J.D.,  LeDue J. and Murphy TH. Improved methods for chronic light-based motor mapping in mice: automated movement tracking with accelerometers, and chronic EEG recording in a bilateral thin-skull preparation. Front Neural Circuits. 7:123.

Harrison TC, Murphy TH.  (2012) Towards a circuit mechanism for movement tuning in motor cortex.  Front Neural Circuits. 6:127. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2012.00127. Epub 2013 Jan 18. 

Harrison TC, Ayling OG, Murphy TH. (2012) Distinct cortical circuit mechanisms for complex forelimb movement and motor map topography. Neuron. 74:397-409. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.02.028.

Lim, D.H. M.H. Mohajerani, Boyd J., LeDue J., Chen S., and Murphy T.H. (2012) In vivo large-scale cortical mapping using channelrhodopsin-2 stimulation in transgenic mice reveals asymmetric and reciprocal relationships between cortical areas. Front. Neural Circuits 6:11. doi: 10.3389/fncir.2012.00011. 

Scott N.A., Murphy T.H & Illes J.  (2012) Incidental findings in neuroimaging research:  a framework for anticipating the next frontier.  Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, DOI: 10.1525/jer.2012.7.1.53

Scott, N., Murphy, T.H. (2012) Hemodynamic responses evoked by selective neuronal stimulation via channelrhodopsin-2 are independent of intracortical ionotropic excitatory synaptic transmission. PLoS ONE 7(1): e29859. doi:10.1371

Scott NA, Murphy TH (2011) Glial laminar cortical architecture matches metabolic demand. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 31:793-794.

Takahashi H, Arstikaitis P, Prasad T, Bartlett TE, Wang YT, Murphy TH, Craig AM (2011) Postsynaptic TrkC and presynaptic PTPsigma function as a bidirectional excitatory synaptic organizing complex. Neuron 69:287-303. 

Arstikaitis P, Gauthier-Campbell C, Huang K, El-Husseini A, Murphy TH (2011) Proteins that promote filopodia stability, but not number, lead to more axonal-dendritic contacts. PLoS One 6:e16998. 

Mohajerani MH, McVea DA, Fingas M, and Murphy TH (2010) Mirrored bilateral slow-wave cortical activity within local circuits revealed by fast bihemispheric voltage-sensitive dye imaging in anesthetized and awake mice. J Neurosci 30:3745-51.

Harrison TC, Sigler A, and Murphy TH. (2009) Simple and cost-effective hardware and software for functional brain mapping using Intrinsic Optical Signal imaging. J Neurosci Methods 182:211-218;
also see: Software.  

Ayling OG, Harrison TC, Boyd JD, Goroshkov A, and Murphy TH. (2009) Automated light-based mapping of motor cortex by photoactivation of channelrhodopsin-2 transgenic mice. Nat Methods 6:219-224.
 **  Supported in part by the Estate of Erika W. White.
The purpose of this fund is to support research into the medical use of laser technology.

Awatramani GB, Boyd JD, and Delaney KR, Murphy TH (2007) Effective release rates at single rat Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses during sustained theta-burst activity revealed by optical imaging. J Physiol 582:583-595.

Winship IR, Plaa N, and Murphy TH (2007) Rapid astrocyte calcium signals correlate with neuronal activity and onset of the hemodynamic response in vivo. J Neurosci 27:6268-6272.

Gauthier-Campbell C, Carolina Gutierrez-Herrera R, Huang K, Levinson JN, Murphy TH, Kilimann MW, Sala C, Colicos MA, and El-Husseini A (2008) Paralemmin-1, a Modulator of filopodia induction is required for spine maturation. Mol Biol Cell 19:2026-2038.

Liu Z, Otsu Y, Vasuta C, Nawa H, and Murphy TH (2007) Action-potential-independent GABAergic tone mediated by nicotinic stimulation of immature striatal miniature synaptic transmission. J Neurophysiol 98:581-593.

Liu Z, Ren J, and Murphy TH (2003) Decoding of synaptic voltage waveforms by specific classes high threshold calcium channels. J Physiol 553:473-488;
Supplemental Data.Otsu Y and Murphy TH (2003) Miniature transmitter release: Accident of nature or careful design? Sci STKE, 211:54, 2003.

Otsu Y and Murphy TH (2003) Mind-altering miniature neurotransmitter release? Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 100:5589-90 (Commentary).

Prange O and Murphy TH (2001) PSD-95 clusters are associated with stable filopodial spine precursors during early development of cortical neurons. J Neurosci 21:9325-9333.  **Contains our cover photo. - Supplemental Data


Mackenzie PJ, Kenner GS, Prange O, and Murphy TH (2000) Vesicle number does not predict postsynaptic measures of miniature synaptic activity frequency in cultured cortical neurons. Neuroscience 98:1-7.
 **Contains our cover photo:

Cover Image 

Mackenzie PJ, Kenner GS, Prange O, Shayan H, Umemiya M, and Murphy TH (1999) Ultrastructural correlates of quantal synaptic function at single CNS synapses. J Neurosci 19:RC13.

Nakazawa H and Murphy TH. (1999) Activation of nuclear calcium dynamics by synaptic stimulation in cultured cortical neurons. J Neurochem 73:1075-1083.

Umemiya M, Senda M, and Murphy TH (1999) Behavior of NMDA and AMPA receptor mediated miniature excitatory synaptic currents at synapses identified by calcium imaging. J Physiol (Lond). 521:113-22.

Wang S, Prange O, and Murphy TH (1999) Amplification of calcium signals at dendritic spines provides a method for CNS quantal analysis.
Canadian J of Physiol Pharmacol 77:651-659.

Mackenzie PJ, Umemiya M, and Murphy TH (1996) Ca2+ imaging of CNS axons in culture indicates reliable coupling between single action potentials and distal functional release sites. Neuron 16:783-795.  **Contains our cover photo.

Cover of Neuron 16, April 1996  

Murphy TH, Baraban JM, and Wier WG (1995) Mapping miniature synaptic currents to single synapses using calcium imaging reveals heterogeneity in postsynaptic output. Neuron 15:159-168.

Murphy TH, Baraban JM, Wier WG, and Blatter LA (1994) Visualization of quantal synaptic transmission by dendritic calcium imaging.
Science 263:529-532.

Murphy TH, Blatter LA, Wier WG, and Baraban JM (1993) Rapid communication between neurons and astrocytes in primary cortical cultures.
J Neurosci 13:2672-2679.

Murphy TH, Worley PF, and Baraban JM (1991) L-type voltage-sensitive calcium channels mediate synaptic activation of immediate early genes.
Neuron 7:625-635.

Disease Stroke/Psychiatric:

McGirr, A., LeDue, J., Chan, A.W., Xie, Y. & Murphy, T.H. (2017) Cortical functional hyperconnectivity in a mouse model of depression and selective network effects of ketamine. Brain, 140, 2210-2225.

Balbi, M., Vanni, M.P., Silasi, G., Sekino, Y., Bolanos, L., LeDue, J.M. & Murphy, T.H. (2017) Targeted ischemic stroke induction and mesoscopic imaging assessment of blood flow and ischemic depolarization in awake mice. Neurophotonics, 4, 035001.

Balbi, M., Vanni, M.P., Vega, M.J., Silasi, G., Sekino, Y., Boyd, J.D., LeDue, J.M. & Murphy, T.H. (2018) Longitudinal monitoring of mesoscopic cortical activity in a mouse model of microinfarcts reveals dissociations with behavioral and motor function. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 271678X18763428.

Langdon, K.D., Cordova, C.A., Granter-Button, S., Boyd, J.D., Peeling, J., Murphy, T.H. & Corbett, D. (2017) Executive dysfunction and blockage of brain microvessels in a rat model of vascular cognitive impairment. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab, 271678X17739219.


Corbett, D., Carmichael, S.T., Murphy, T.H., Jones, T.A., Schwab, M.E., Jolkkonen, J., Clarkson, A.N., Dancause, N., Weiloch, T., Johansen-Berg, H., Nilsson, M., McCullough, L.D. & Joy, M.T. (2017a) Enhancing the Alignment of the Preclinical and Clinical Stroke Recovery Research Pipeline: Consensus-Based Core Recommendations From the Stroke Recovery and Rehabilitation Roundtable Translational Working Group. Neurorehabil Neural Repair, 31, 699-707.

Corbett, D., Carmichael, S.T., Murphy, T.H., Jones, T.A., Schwab, M.E., Jolkkonen, J., Clarkson, A.N., Dancause, N., Weiloch, T., Johansen-Berg, H., Nilsson, M., McCullough, L.D. & Joy, M.T. (2017b) Enhancing the alignment of the preclinical and clinical stroke recovery research pipeline:

Demuth, H.-U., Dijkhuizen, RM., Farr, TD., Gelderblom, M., Horsburgh, K., Iadecola, C., McLeod, DD., Michalski, D., Murphy, TH., Orbe, J., Otte, W., Petzold, GC., Plesnila, N., Reiser, G., Reymann, KG., Rueger, MA., Saur, D., Savitz, SI., Schilling, S., Spratt, NJ., Turner, RJ., Vemuganti, R., Vivien, D., Yepes, M., Zille, M., and Botze, J. (2017) Recent progress in translational research on neurovascular and neurodegenerative disorders. Proceedings from the 9th International Symposium on Neuroprotection and Neurorepair. 35:87-103

Hefendehl, J., LeDue, J., Ko, R., Murphy, T., and MacVicar, B. (2016). Mapping synaptic glutamate transporter dysfunction in vivo to regions surrounding Aβ-plaques by iGluSnFR Two-Photon imaging  Nature Comm. 11:127-134

Connor SA, Ammendrup-Johnsen I, Chan AW, Kishimoto Y, Murayama C, Kurihara N, Tada A, Ge Y, Lu H, Yan R, LeDue JM, Matsumoto H, Kiyonari H, Kirino Y, Matsuzaki F, Suzuki T, Murphy TH, Wang YT, Yamamoto T, Craig AM.  (2016) Altered Cortical Dynamics and Cognitive Function upon Haploinsufficiency of the Autism-Linked Excitatory Synaptic Suppressor MDGA2.  Neuron 2016 Sep 7;91(5):1052-68. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2016.08.016.

Hilton BJ, Anenberg E, Harrison TC, Boyd JD, Murphy TH, Tetzlaff W (2016) Re-Establishment of Cortical Motor Output Maps and Spontaneous Functional Recovery via Spared Dorsolaterally Projecting Corticospinal Neurons after Dorsal Column Spinal Cord Injury in Adult Mice. J Neurosci 36:4080-4092

Parsons MP, Vanni MP, Woodard CL, Kang R, Murphy TH, Raymond LA (2016) Real-time imaging of glutamate clearance reveals normal striatal uptake in Huntington disease mouse models. Nat Commun 7:11251.

Silasi G, She J, Boyd JD, Xue S, Murphy TH (2015) A mouse model of small-vessel disease that produces brain-wide-identified microocclusions and regionally selective neuronal injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 35:734-738. supplemental material protocol

Murphy TH (2015) Two-Photon Imaging of Neuronal Structural Plasticity in Mice during and after Ischemia. Cold Spring Harb Protoc 2015:548-557.

Lim, D.H., LeDue, J.M., Mohajerani, M.H. and Murphy T.H. (2014) Optogenetic mapping after stroke reveals network-wide scaling of functional connections and heterogeneous recovery of the peri-infarct. J. of Neurosci. 34(49):16455-16466

Silasi, G., and Murphy, T.H. (2014b). Stroke and the Connectome: How Connectivity Guides Therapeutic Intervention. Neuron 83, 1354-1368.

Silasi, G., and Murphy, T.H. (2014a). Removing the brakes on post-stroke plasticity drives recovery from the intact hemisphere and spinal cord. Brain 137, 648-650.

Xie, Y., Chen, S., and Murphy, T.H. (2014) Prolonged deficits in parvalbumin interneuron synaptic transmission despite recovery of dendritic structure and excitability in somatosensory cortex following global ischemia" J. of Neurosci. 34(45):14890-900

Anenberg, E., Arstikaitis, P., Niitsu, Y., Harrison, T.C., Boyd, J.D., Hilton, B.J., Tetzlaff, W., and Murphy, T.H. (2014). Ministrokes in channelrhodopsin-2 transgenic mice reveal widespread deficits in motor output despite maintenance of cortical neuronal excitability. J Neurosci 34: 1094-1104.

Harrison, T.C., Boyd J.D., Silasi G., Murphy T.H. (2013) Displacement of sensory maps and disorganization of motor cortex after targeted stroke in mice  Stroke.  Aug;44(8):2300-6.

Xie Y, Chen S, Anenberg E, Murphy TH.  (2013) Resistance of optogenetically evoked motor function to global ischemia and reperfusion in mouse in vivo.   J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 33:1148-1152.

Xie, Y., Chen, S., and Murphy, T. (2012). Dendritic spines and pre-synaptic boutons are stable despite local deep hypothermic challenge and re-warming in vivo. PLoS One 7, e36305. 

Tran S, Chen S, Liu RR, Xie Y, Murphy TH (2012). Moderate or deep local hypothermia does not prevent the onset of ischemia-induced dendritic damage. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 32:437–442.

Mohajerani MH, Aminoltejari K, Murphy TH.  (2011) Targeted mini-strokes produce changes in interhemispheric sensory signal processing that are indicative of disinhibition within minutes.  Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 May 31;108(22):E183-91. Epub 2011 May 16.   
Author summary in more simple language.

Chen S, Tran S, Sigler A, Murphy TH (2011) Automated and quantitative image analysis of ischemic dendritic blebbing using in vivo 2-photon microscopy data. J Neurosci Methods 195:222-231.

Sigler, A. and Murphy T.H. (2010) In vivo two-photon imaging of fine structure in the rodent brain: before, during and after stroke. Stroke 41 (10 Suppl): S117-123.

Milnerwood AJ, Gladding CM, Pouladi MA, Kaufman AM, Hines RM, Boyd JD, Ko RW, Vasuta OC, Graham RK, Hayden MR, Murphy TH, and Raymond LA (2010) Early increase in extrasynaptic NMDA receptor signaling and expression contributes to phenotype onset in Huntington's disease mice. Neuron 65:178-90.

Liu RR, and Murphy TH (2009) Reversible cyclosporine A sensitive mitochondrial depolarization occurs within minutes of stroke onset in mouse somatosensory cortex in vivo. A two-photon imaging study. J Biol Chem 284:36109-36117.
Supplemental Movies

Murphy TH, and Corbett D (2009) Plasticity during stroke recovery: from synapse to behaviour. Nat Rev Neurosc 10:861-872.

Brown CE, Boyd JD, and Murphy TH (2009) Longitudinal in vivo imaging reveals balanced and branch specific dendritic remodelling of mature cortical pyramidal neurons after stroke. J Cereb Blood Flow Metabol, doi:10.1038/jcbfm.2009.241.

Winship IR and Murphy TH (2009) Re-mapping the somatosensory cortex brain after stroke: insight from imaging the synapse to network. The Neuroscientist 15:507-524.

Sigler A, Mohajerani MH, and Murphy TH (2009) Imaging rapid redistribution of sensory-evoked depolarization through existing cortical pathways after targeted stroke in mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 106: 11759-64.

Brown CE, Aminoltejari K, Erb H, Winship I, and Murphy TH (2009) In vivo voltage sensitive dye imaging in adult mice reveals that somatosensory maps lost to stroke are replaced over weeks by new structural and functional circuits with prolonged modes of activation within both the peri-infarct zone and distant sites. J. Neurosci. 2009 29:1719-1734. **Contains our cover photo .
Supplemental Movies

Cover image

Winship IR and Murphy TH (2008) In vivo calcium imaging reveals functional rewiring of single somatosensory neurons after stroke. J. Neurosci. 28:6592-6606
  -  see comments in Research Highlights, Neuroscience: Rewiring the brain. Nature 454, 140; doi:10.1038/454140b.

Brown CE and Murphy TH (2008) Livin' on the edge: imaging dendritic spine turnover in the peri-infarct zone during ischemic stroke and recovery. Neuroscientist 14: 139-146

Brown CE, Li P, Boyd JD, Delaney KR, and Murphy TH (2007) Extensive turnover of dendritic spines and vascular remodeling in cortical tissues recovering from stroke. J Neurosci 27:4101-4109.

Li P and Murphy TH (2008) Two-photon imaging during prolonged middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice reveals recovery of dendritic structure following reperfusion. J Neurosci 28:11970-11979.

Brown CE, Wong C, and Murphy TH (2008) Rapid morphologic plasticity of peri-infarct dendritic spines after focal ischemic stroke. Stroke 39:1286-1291.

Murphy TH, Li P, Betts K, and Liu R (2008) Two-photon imaging of stroke onset in vivo reveals that NMDA-receptor independent ischemic depolarization is the major cause of rapid reversible damage to dendrites and spines.  J Neurosci 28:1756-1772.

Sigler A, Goroshkov A, and Murphy TH (2008) Hardware and methodology for targeting single brain arterioles for photothrombotic stroke on an upright microscope. J Neurosci Methods 170:35-44;
Supplemental Movie

Enright LE, Zhang S, and Murphy TH (2007) Fine mapping of the spatial relationship between acute ischemia and dendritic structure indicates selective vulnerability of layer V neuron dendritic tufts within single neurons in vivo. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab 27:1185-1200.
** Contains our
cover photo:

 Cover image

Zhang S and Murphy TH (2007) Imaging the impact of cortical microcirculation on synaptic structure and sensory-evoked hemodynamic responses in vivo. PLoS Biol 5:e119.

Zhang S, Boyd J, Delaney K, and Murphy TH (2005) Rapid reversible changes in dendritic spine structure in vivo gated by the degree of ischemia.
J Neurosci 25:5333-5338.

Oxidative stress:

Layton R.H., Payapilli J., Ma T., Murphy T.H., Smirnova N., Langley B.C., Sultana R., Butterfield D.A., Santagata S., Gazaryan I., Bell G.W., and Ratan R.R.  (2010) Refining the “peroxide code”: spatial, temporal and quantitative regulation of hydrogen peroxide in astrocytes induces non-cell-autonomous protection of neurons via a novel Nrf-2-independent pathway. PNAS 107(40):17385-90, 2010

Shih AY, Erb H, and Murphy TH (2007) Dopamine activates Nrf2-regulated neuroprotective pathways in astrocytes and meningeal cells.
J Neurochem 101:109-119.

Liu RR, Brown CE, and Murphy TH (2007) Differential regulation of cell proliferation in neurogenic zones in mice lacking cystine transport by xCT. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 364:528-533.

Shih AY, Erb H, Sun X, Toda S, Kalivas PW, and Murphy TH (2006) Cystine/glutamate exchange modulates glutathione supply for neuroprotection from oxidative stress and cell proliferation. J Neurosci 26:10514-10523.

Sun X, Shih AY, Johannssen HC, Erb H, Li P, and Murphy TH (2006) Two-photon imaging of glutathione levels in intact brain indicates enhanced redox buffering in developing neurons and cells at the cerebrospinal fluid and blood-brain interface. J Biol Chem 281:17420-17431.

Shih AY, Li P, and Murphy TH (2005a) A small-molecule-inducible Nrf2-mediated antioxidant response provides effective prophylaxis against cerebral ischemia in vivo. J Neurosci 25:10321-10335.

Shih AY, Imbeault S, Barakauskas V, Erb H, Jiang L, Li P, Murphy TH (2005b) Induction of the Nrf2-driven antioxidant response confers neuroprotection during mitochondrial stress in vivo. J Biol Chem 280:22925-22936.

Shih AY, Johnson DA, Wong G, Kraft AD, Jiang L, Erb H, Johnson JA, Murphy TH (2003) Coordinate regulation of glutathione biosynthesis and release by Nrf2-expressing glia potently protects neurons from oxidative stress. J Neurosci 23:3394-3406.

Murphy TH, Miyamoto M, Sastre A, Schnaar RL, Coyle JT (1989) Glutamate toxicity in a neuronal cell line involves inhibition of cystine transport leading to oxidative stress. Neuron 2:1547-1558.